Debian quick-ref

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=== APT
apt-get update Update packages listings from package repositories as listed in /etc/apt/sources.list. Required whenever that file or the contents of the repositories change.
apt-cache search search-string Search packages and descriptions for search-string.
apt-cache policy package-names Show versions and priorities of available packages.
apt-cache show package-names Show package information incl. description.
apt-cache showpkg package-names Show package dependencies (needed packages).
apt-get install package-names Install packages from repositories with all dependencies.
apt-get upgrade Install newest versions of all packages currently installed.
apt-get dist-upgrade Like apt-get upgrade, but with advanced conflict resolution.
apt-get remove package-names Remove packages with all needed packages.
apt-get autoremove Remove packages that no other packages depend on.
apt-cache depends package-names List all packages needed by the one given.
apt-cache rdepends package-names List all packages that need the one given.
apt-file update Update content listings from package repositories, see apt-get update
apt-file search file-name Search packages for file.
apt-file list package-name List contents of a package.
auto-apt Installs packages automatically if needed, can replace apt-file, needs auto-apt.
aptitude Console interface to APT, needs aptitude.
synaptic GUI interface to APT, needs synaptic.
=== Dpkg
dpkg -l names List packages.
dpkg -I pkg.deb Show package information.
dpkg -c pkg.deb List contents of package file.
dpkg -S filename Show which package a file belongs to.
dpkg -i pkg.deb Install package files.
debsums Audit check sums of installed packages, needs debsums.
dpkg-divert options file Override a package's version of a file.
dpkg –compare-versions v1 gt v2 Compare version numbers, check with echo $?.
dpkg-query -W –showformat=format Query installed packages, format e.g. ‘${Package} ${Version} ${Installed-Size}\n’.
dpkg –get-selections > file Write package selections to file.
dpkg –set-selections < file Set package selections from file.
=== The Network
/etc/network/interfaces Network interface configuration.
ifup, ifdown device Start, stop network interfaces according to files above.
/sbin/ip Show and manipulate network interfaces and routing, needs iproute.
ssh -X user@host Login at other machine.
scp files user@host:path Copy files to other machine (and vice versa).
=== Web Server (Apache2)
/etc/apache2/ Configuration files.
/etc/apache2/sites-available/ Contains virtual hosts. To enable a virtual host, use a2ensite.
/etc/apache2/mods-available/ Contains available modules files. To enable a module, use a2enmod.
=== Configuration
/etc/ All system configuration files are under directory /etc/.
editor files Default text editor. May be nano, emacs, vi, joe.
dpkg-reconfigure package-name Reconfigure a package, e.g. console-common (keyboard), locales (localisation).
update-alternatives options Manage command alternatives.
update-grub After changing /boot/grub/menu.lst.
make-kpkg –initrd –revision=2:my.1.0 –rootcmd fakeroot –uc –us kernel_image Build a kernel packages from sources, if a customised kernel is really needed, needs kernel-package.
m-a a-i module kernel_image Create and install third-party modules (gspca, …), needs module-assistant.
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