Archivos por Etiqueta: debian

The Debian Administrator’s Handbook is available

We’re pleased to announce that (after 5 months of work) the Debian Administrator’s Handbook is now available, both as a beautiful 495-page paperback and as an ebook (PDF, EPUB, MOBI formats).

The paperback’s usual price is €44.90, but we decided to make a special deal for the launch. You can get it with a 10% discount until May 18th. Hurry up and get it from

Download the ebookThe ebook is available for immediate download on the book’s website. There’s the PDF file corresponding to the printed book but also an EPUB version suitable for smartphones and ebook readers. You can also find a Mobipocket version for Kindle and other ebook readers that do not support EPUB (the open standard).

And of course, you can read it online.

Since the book is released under a set of free licenses (GPL-2+ / CC-BY-SA 3.0), it’s already available in Debian Unstable, just apt-get install debian-handbook. There’s also a git repository (git clone git:// if you want to contribute.

Raphaël Hertzog (


Debian quick-ref

=== APT
apt-get update Update packages listings from package repositories as listed in /etc/apt/sources.list. Required whenever that file or the contents of the repositories change.
apt-cache search search-string Search packages and descriptions for search-string.
apt-cache policy package-names Show versions and priorities of available packages.
apt-cache show package-names Show package information incl. description.
apt-cache showpkg package-names Show package dependencies (needed packages).
apt-get install package-names Install packages from repositories with all dependencies.
apt-get upgrade Install newest versions of all packages currently installed.
apt-get dist-upgrade Like apt-get upgrade, but with advanced conflict resolution.
apt-get remove package-names Remove packages with all needed packages.
apt-get autoremove Remove packages that no other packages depend on.
apt-cache depends package-names List all packages needed by the one given.
apt-cache rdepends package-names List all packages that need the one given.
apt-file update Update content listings from package repositories, see apt-get update
apt-file search file-name Search packages for file.
apt-file list package-name List contents of a package.
auto-apt Installs packages automatically if needed, can replace apt-file, needs auto-apt.
aptitude Console interface to APT, needs aptitude.
synaptic GUI interface to APT, needs synaptic.
=== Dpkg
dpkg -l names List packages.
dpkg -I pkg.deb Show package information.
dpkg -c pkg.deb List contents of package file.
dpkg -S filename Show which package a file belongs to.
dpkg -i pkg.deb Install package files.
debsums Audit check sums of installed packages, needs debsums.
dpkg-divert options file Override a package's version of a file.
dpkg –compare-versions v1 gt v2 Compare version numbers, check with echo $?.
dpkg-query -W –showformat=format Query installed packages, format e.g. ‘${Package} ${Version} ${Installed-Size}\n’.
dpkg –get-selections > file Write package selections to file.
dpkg –set-selections < file Set package selections from file.
=== The Network
/etc/network/interfaces Network interface configuration.
ifup, ifdown device Start, stop network interfaces according to files above.
/sbin/ip Show and manipulate network interfaces and routing, needs iproute.
ssh -X user@host Login at other machine.
scp files user@host:path Copy files to other machine (and vice versa).
=== Web Server (Apache2)
/etc/apache2/ Configuration files.
/etc/apache2/sites-available/ Contains virtual hosts. To enable a virtual host, use a2ensite.
/etc/apache2/mods-available/ Contains available modules files. To enable a module, use a2enmod.
=== Configuration
/etc/ All system configuration files are under directory /etc/.
editor files Default text editor. May be nano, emacs, vi, joe.
dpkg-reconfigure package-name Reconfigure a package, e.g. console-common (keyboard), locales (localisation).
update-alternatives options Manage command alternatives.
update-grub After changing /boot/grub/menu.lst.
make-kpkg –initrd –revision=2:my.1.0 –rootcmd fakeroot –uc –us kernel_image Build a kernel packages from sources, if a customised kernel is really needed, needs kernel-package.
m-a a-i module kernel_image Create and install third-party modules (gspca, …), needs module-assistant.
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